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Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan

Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan (12 August 1892 – 27 September 1972) was a mathematician and librarian from India. He is considered to be the Father of Library Science, Documentation, and Information Science in India. His birthday is observed every year as the National Library Day in India.

Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan most notable contributions to the field were his five laws of library science (1930). Colon Classification (CC) is a system of library classification developed by S. R. Ranganathan in 1933. The CC was the first ever faceted (or analytico-synthetic) classification. In CC, facets describe "personality" (the most specific subject), matter, energy, space and time (PMEST).

Ranganathan defines reference service as “the process of establishing contact between a reader and his documents in a personal way”.

The term Pre-natal cataloguing is coined by Dr. S. R. Ranganathan for use in the Library of Congress. Based on this idea the Library of Congress introduced the Cataloguing-in-Source Project in June 1958. In July 1971 the Library of Congrees started the Cataloguing-in-Publication project which had its root in Ranganathan's Pre-Natal Cataloguing.

Dr. S. R. Ranganathan coined the term Librametry and presented his concept in 1948 at the ASLIB conference held at Lemington Spa. He used the term to include statistical approaches to the study of library and its services.

Dr. S. R. Ranganathan created the Alien- Penumbral- Umbral- Penumbral- Alien (APUPA) pattern as a method of classifying books and documents based on their relevance to the searcher in 1960.

Dr. S. R. Ranganathan developed a method of indexing, called chain procedure of subject indexing or simply Chain Indexing. He first mentioned this in his book “Theory of Library Catalogue” in 1938. It is a method of deriving alphabetical subject entries from the chain of successive subdivisions of subjects needed to be indexed leading from general to specific level.

Dr. S R Ranganathan prepared Model Library Act for constituent states of India in 1930.

In 1957 University Grants Commission appointed a "Library Committee to Advice the U.G.C. About Development of Libraries and Their Organization" under the chairmanship of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan to look into the conditions of the academic libraries and advise it on the standards of libraries, pay scales of library staff their training and status.

The Committee on University and College Libraries was appointed in 1957 by the University Grants Commission (UGC) under the chairmanship of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan to examine the conditions of academic libraries and suggest the standards for libraries, pay scales of library staff and training and status of the staff. The report gave a big push to the development of college libraries and status of college librarians.

In order to consider the question of improving and coordinating the standards of teaching, and conducting research in the department of library science in Indian Universities under the chairmanship of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan a Review Committee on Library Science was formed in July 1961.

Sarada Ranganathan Endowment for Library Science (SRELS) was founded by Dr. S. R. Ranganathan, renowned Library and Information Scientist in 1961. The endowment was registered as a Charitable Endowment with the Government of India in 1963 and with Government of Karnataka in 2006.

The Government of India created the Indian Standards Institution in 1947. In the same year, its Documentation (Sectional) Committee was formed with Prof. S. R. Ranganathan as chairman. A proposal was made to Union Ministry of Education for the establishment of a National Documentation Centre. Documentation Research & Training Centre (DRTC) by this committee and as a result, the DTRC was established in January 1962 as a division of the Indian Statistical Institute.

The Government of India awarded Padmashri to Dr. S.R. Ranganathan in 1957 for valuable contributions to Library Science. Popular Books of Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan includes - The Five Laws of Library Science (1931); Colon Classification (1933); Theory of Library Catalogue (1938); Elements of Library Classification (1945); Philosophy of Library Classification (1951); Library Book Selection (1952); Classified Catalogue Code: With Additional Rules for Dictionary Catalogue Code (1958); Reference Service (1961); Prolegomena to Library Classification (1967); Ramanujan: The Man and the Mathematician (1967).

Popular Quotes of Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan includes - “God has chosen me as an instrument, the honour done to me should act as an incentive to the younger generation to devote their lives whole heartedly to library science and service"; Library as a living system “takes a new matter, casts off old matter, changes in size and takes new shapes and term”.
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